The first recoilless gun was developed by Commander Cleland Davis of the US Navy, just prior to the First World War. Other countermass materials that have been used include inert powders and liquids. This allows for the elimination of much of the heavy and bulky recoil-counteracting equipment of a conventional cannon as well as a thinner-walled barrel, and thus the launch of a relatively large projectile from a platform that would not be capable of handling the weight or recoil of a conventional gun of the same size. Since venting propellant gases to the rear can be dangerous in confined spaces, some recoilless guns use a combination of a countershot and captive piston propelling cartridge design to avoid both recoil and backblast. The vehicle wanted was a light ‘intervals machine’ (a vehicle meant to cover the spaces left betwee… The near complete lack of recoil allows some versions to be shoulder-fired, but the majority are mounted on light tripods and are intended to be easily carried by a soldier. In addition, the Davy Crockett, a muzzle-loaded recoilless launch system for tactical nuclear warheads intended to counteract Soviet tank units, was developed in the 1960s and deployed to American units in Germany. The largest versions retain enough bulk and recoil to be restricted to a towed mount or relatively heavy vehicle, but are still much lighter and more portable than cannon of the same scale. During World War II, the Swedish military developed a shoulder-fired 20 mm device, the Pansarvärnsgevär m/42 (20 mm m/42); the British expressed their interest in it, but by that point the weapon, patterned after obsolete anti-tank rifles, was too weak to be effective against period tank armor. While there are rocket-assisted rounds for recoilless weapons, they are still ejected from the barrel by the deflagration of a conventional propelling charge. Technically, only devices that use spin-stabilized projectiles fired from a rifled barrel are recoilless rifles, while smoothbore variants (which can be fin-stabilized or unstabilized) are recoilless guns. Many nations also use a weapon derived from the Carl Gustav, the one-shot AT4, which was originally developed in 1984 to fulfil an urgent requirement for an effective replacement for the M72 LAW after the failure of the FGR-17 Viper program the previous year. First introduced in 1948 and exported extensively since 1964, it is still in widespread use throughout the world today: a huge selection of special-purpose rounds are available for the system, and the current variant, known as the M4 or M3E1, is designed to be compatible with computerized optics and future "smart" ammunition. These included the unusual Düsenkanone 88, an 88mm recoilless rifle fed by a 10-round rotary cylinder and with the exhaust vent angled upwards at 51 degrees to the barrel so it could pass through the host aircraft's fuselage rather than risking a rear-vented backblast damaging the tail, and the Sondergerät SG104 "Münchhausen", a gargantuan 14-inch (355.6mm) weapon designed to be mounted under the fuselage of a Dornier Do 217. By the time of the Korean War, recoilless rifles were found throughout the US forces. The mounting is a tripod, but the front leg has a castoring wheel. The smoothbore variants (those devoid of rifling) are termed recoilless guns. The greatly diminished recoil allows for devices that can be carried by individual infantrymen: heavier recoilless rifles are mounted on light tripods, wheeled light carriages, or small vehicles, and intended to be carried by crew of two to five. This article is within the scope of WikiProject Firearms, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of firearms on Wikipedia. In the 1930s, many different types of weapons were built and tested with configurations ranging from 37 mm to 305 mm. 3.7in fired a 22.2 lb (10 kg) wallbuster to 2,000 yards. The best-known of these early recoilless rifles was the Model 1935 76 mm DRP designed by Leonid Kurchevsky. The British, whose efforts were led by Charles Dennistoun Burney, inventor of the Wallbuster HESH round, also developed recoilless designs. At longer ranges, it is easier to hit tanks with the M18 because of its low sway relative to the M9A1 and M1A1. Diagram of the operation of a recoilless rifle using a vented case. In the case of single-shot recoilless weapons such as the Panzerfaust or AT4, the device is externally almost identical in design to a single-shot rocket launcher: the key difference is that the launch tube is a gun that launches the projectile using a pre-loaded powder charge, not a hollow tube. The ubiquitous RPG-7 is also technically a recoilless gun, since its rocket-powered projectile is launched using an explosive booster charge (even more so when firing the OG-7V anti-personnel round, which has no rocket motor), though it is usually not classified as one. O… The Recoilless Gun is the Maya unique Heavy Infantry of the Modern Age that replaces the standard Bazooka. Modern shoulder fired rifles use muzzle brakes to direct gas back towards the shooter, canceling some of the total recoil. A recoilless rifle, recoilless launcher or recoilless gun, sometimes abbreviated "RR" or "RCL" (for ReCoilLess)[1] is a type of lightweight artillery system or man-portable launcher that is designed to eject some form of countermass such as propellant gas from the rear of the weapon at the moment of firing, creating forward thrust that counteracts most of the weapon's recoil. Such a system places enormous stress on its midpoint, is extremely cumbersome to reload, and has the highly undesirable effect of launching a projectile potentially just as deadly as the one launched at the enemy at a point behind the shooter where their allies may well be. Start This article has been rated as Start-Class on the project's quality scale. There are a number of principles under which a recoilless gun can operate, all involving the ejection of some kind of counter-mass from the rear of the gun tube to offset the force of the projectile being fired forward. M18 Recoilless Rifle: 57×303mmR: SS RCL United States: 1942 M20: 75mm: SS RCL United States: 1944 M28/M29 Nuclear Recoilless Rifle: SS RCL United States: 1956 M40: Watervliet Arsenal: 105×607mmR: SS RCL United States: 1950s M-60: HEAT: SS RCL Yugoslavia: 1960s M67: 3.54 in (90 mm) SS RCL United States: 1960s Miniman: FFV Ordnance: HEAT: SS AT Sweden: 1968 Pvpj 1110 The two ends of the piston assembly are captured at the ends of the barrel, by which point the propellant gas has expanded and cooled enough that there is no threat of explosion. Notable Recoilless Guns Davis Gun: The first operational recoilless weapon the Davis Gun was developed shortly before the First World War, and was used during that conflict as an air-to-air combat weapon against airships, an air-to-ground weapon against submarines, and as a ground-based light artillery piece. An M40 recoilless rifle on its M79 "wheelbarrow" tripod. This distinction is often lost, and both are often called recoilless rifles.[2]. The airburst fuzing system on a modern Carl Gustav recoilless rifle High Explosive round. They were then replaced with M40 106mm recoilless rifles, but following a catastrophic in-bore ammunition explosion that killed one of the five-man gun crew at Alpine Meadows Ski Resort, California in 1995 and two further in-bore explosions at Mammoth Mountain, California within thirteen days of each other in December 2002, all such guns were removed from use and replaced with surplus 105mm howitzers. This design was of a gun which fired projectiles in opposite directions, but there is no evidence any physical firearm based on the design was constructed at the time. The recoilless concept is used in the U.S. Army M40AD 106 -mm recoilless rifle that allows propellant gases to escape through a perforated chamber … If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks. The new forms of ammunition developed for HMGs, such as multi-purpose and SLAP (APDS) rounds, have helped to restore interest in the concept of a large-calibre, shoulder-fired rifle as a combination long-range sniping/anti-sniping and. The original WWII "Panzerfaust" was a primitive recoilless gun, but the propellant charge was attached to the back end of a projectile more like that of our 2.36in "Bazooka"- … M40 recoilless rifle on M79 "wheelbarrow" tripod, a typical example of a recoilless rifle with a vented breech.. A recoilless rifle, recoilless launcher or recoilless gun is a type of firearm designed to eject a countermass of some type to offset the recoil of firing. Recoilless weapons with rifled tubes are called "Recoilless Rifles", while those with smooth bores are called "Recoilless Guns". On firing, the propellant expands rapidly, pushing the pistons outward. If you are looking for 6 Barrell Recoilless Rifle And Antique Flintlock Double Ba The M40, usually mounted on a jeep or technical, is still very common in conflict zones throughout the world, where it is used as a hard-hitting strike weapon in support of infantry, with the M40-armed technical fulfilling a similar combat role to an attack helicopter. Two were captured by the Finns and tested; one example was given to the Germans in 1940. This pushes the projectile forwards towards the target and the countermass backwards providing the recoilless effect. M29 Davy Crockett The M2 Carl Gustav is a Swedish made, multi-role, recoilless, 84mm, anti-tank rifle. Recoilless rifles will not function correctly if the venting system is damaged, blocked, or poorly maintained: in this state, the recoil-damping effect can be reduced or lost altogether, leading to dangerously powerful recoil. Recoilless rifle rounds for breech-loading reloadable systems resemble conventional cased ammunition, using a driving band to engage the rifled gun tube and spin-stabilize the projectile. The 75 was found to be so useful during the invasion of Crete" The smoothbore variants (those devoid of rifling) are termed recoilless guns. The Swedish Pansarvärnsgevär fm/42 made by the Carl Gustav company was an interesting early hybrid antitank weapon – a recoilless rifle firing solid armor-piercing projectiles. Two Russian assault rifles, AEK-971 and AK-107 have counter/balanced recoil systems where a mass is directed in the opposite direction of the bolt/piston. Postwar work developed and deployed the BAT (Battalion, Anti Tank) series of recoilless rifles, culminating in the 120 mm L6 WOMBAT. The large crew-served recoilless rifle started to disappear from first-rate armed forces, except in areas such as the Arctic, where thermal batteries used to provide after-launch power to wire-guided missiles like M47 Dragon and BGM-71 TOW would fail due to extremely low temperatures. Though similar in appearance to a tube-based rocket launcher (since these also operate on a recoilless launch principle), the key difference is that recoilless weapons fire shells utilizing a conventional smokeless propellant. The system is called a recoilless rifle if it has a rifled barrel, and a recoilless gun if it is a smoothbore. The most common system involves venting some portion of the weapon's propellant gas to the rear of the tube, in the same fashion as a rocket launcher. A small number of these mounted on trucks saw combat in the Winter War. When fired, the projectile comes out the front and the base of the shell case fractures in a controlled manner to emit high velocity gasses. It was designed in 1964 by Hugo Abramson to fill the role of a squad anti-tank weapon. During the late 1960s and 1970s, SACLOS wire-guided missiles began to supplant recoilless rifles in the anti-tank role. This was too large to be transported by infantry and was usually towed by jeep. The US did have a development program, and it is not clear to what extent the German designs were copied. The Carl-Gustaf® weapon is an unparalleled and supremely successful solution to the challenges faced by ground forces. While recoilless rifles retain several advantages such as being able to be employed at extremely close range, as a guided missile typically has a significant deadzone before it can arm and begin to seek its target, missile systems tend to be lighter and more accurate, and are better suited to deployment of hollow-charge warheads. Compared to the Bazooka, the Recoilless Gun is statistically identical, but they do +35% damage against all vehicles, which includes Tanks, Industrial Age Ranged Cavalry and Artillery Weapons (and beyond) as well as Supply Wagons, and Anti-Aircraft units. This distinction … It's been around long enough that many armies who've used the firearm have now discarded it. The shell is specially designed with an overlarge charge and a frangible base. The earliest American infantry recoilless rifles were the shoulder-fired 57 mm M18 and the tripod-mounted 75 mm M20, later followed by the 105 mm M27: the latter proved unreliable, too heavy, and too hard to aim. They were largely used in an anti-personnel role firing "beehive" flechette rounds. The balance thus created does not leave much momentum to be imparted to the weapon's mounting or the gunner in the form of felt recoil. On the left hand side, there is an elevating wheel, in the centre of which is the trigger wheel used to fine adjust the elevation and at the same time firing the spotting rifle when pulled, and the gun when pushed. The Armbrust "cartridge," for example, contains the propellant charge inside a double-ended piston assembly, with the projectile in front, and an equal countermass of shredded plastic to the rear. This system would form the basis of the much more successful Carl Gustav recoilless rifle postwar. His design, named the Davis gun, connected two guns back-to-back, with the backwards-facing gun loaded with lead balls and grease of the same weight as the shell in the other gun. It used a 20x180mm case, propelling the 108g (1650gr) bullet at 950 m/s (3150 fps). The 7.5cm LG 40 was found to be so useful during the invasion of Crete that Krupp and Rheinmetall set to work creating more powerful versions, respectively the 10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40 and 10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 42. Obsolete 75mm M20 and 105mm M27 recoilless rifles were used by the U.S. National Park Service and the U.S. Forest Service as a system for triggering controlled avalanches at a safe distance, from the early 1950s until the US Military's inventory of surplus ammunition for these weapons was exhausted in the 1990s. The recoilless gun received its name from its inherent design where some of the produced propellant gasses were exited from the rear of the weapon, reducing some of the recoil effect. His idea was used experimentally by the British as an anti-Zeppelin and anti-submarine weapon mounted on a Handley Page O/100 bomber and intended to be installed on other aircraft. In March 1953, a military commission confirmed the request. One chief development emerging from the later stages of World War 2 (1939-1945) was the recoilless rifle, a relatively lightweight weapon attempting to counter violent recoil forces by jettisoning some of the escaping propellant gasses to the rear while the projectile exited the gun tube at front. The rocket launcher solves this in a way that maintains accuracy and distance more than a recoilless rifle by having the projectile propel itself, thus alleviating the recoil from the person almost entirely. Camp Radcliff (746 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to … 1 Description 1.1 Gameplay 1.2 Tips 2 Gallery Against tanks, the M18 is less effective than the M9A1 bazooka. Technically, only devices that use a rifled barrel are recoilless rifles. Smoothbore variants are recoilless guns. His "Burney Gun" was developed to fire the Wallbuster shell against the Atlantic Wall defences, but was not required in the D-Day landings of 1944. Designed to fix the shortcomings of the 105mm M27 that preceded it, the M40 was light and powerful, and added a .50 caliber spotting rifle to assist in being able to make first-round hits. The larger Ordnance RCL. Marshall Juin was one of the most prestigious and well-known French officers after the Second World War, having notably commanded the Free French Corps in Italy. On top of the mount is a traverse wheel. The M3 Carl Gustav recoilless rifle was introduced in 1946. In 1970 the Ontos was removed from service and most were broken up. eon RE:Recoilless Rifles and Rocket Launchers 6/7/2004 2:57:43 PM Some weapons straddle the definition. [5] Newer models replacing these were the 90 mm M67 and 106 mm M40 (which was actually 105 mm caliber, but designated otherwise to prevent accidental issue of incompatible M27 ammunition). M64 recoilless Gun, part of the M29 Davy Crockett A recoilless gun or rifle is a lightweight weapon that fires a heavier projectile that would be impractical to fire from a recoiling weapon of comparable size. Since recoil has been mostly negated, a heavy and complex recoil damping mechanism is not necessary. By the Korean war the Recoilless Rifle was recognised as a cheap, powerful, and relatively lightweight support weapon available for infantry forces; and by the 1960s-70s they were ubiquitious all over the world; with recoilless rifles up to 100+mm seeing service as serious anti-tank weapons mounted on vehicles and fixed positions. Burney demonstrated the technique with a recoilless 4-gauge shotgun. Conversely, if a projectile becomes lodged in the barrel for any reason, the entire weapon will be forced forward. He went on to produce further designs, with two in particular created as anti-tank weapons. The shredded plastic countermass is quickly slowed by air resistance and is harmless at a distance more than a few feet from the rear of the barrel. Smaller caliber recoilless rifles aren’t used because modern armies have 37-40 millimeter grenade launchers which are smaller, lighter, capable of firing similarly sized explosive payloads, and less hazardous to the user and their allies. Front-line recoilless weapons in the armies of modern industrialized nations are mostly man-portable devices such as the Carl Gustav, an 84 mm weapon. Because some projectile velocity is inevitably lost to the recoil compensation, recoilless rifles tend to have inferior range to traditional cannon, although with a far greater ease of transport, making them popular with paratroop, mountain warfare and special forces units, where portability is of particular concern, as well as with some light infantry and infantry fire support units. For the inscription, see, Shapur I's inscription at the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, "United States Military Artillery for Avalanche Control Program:A Brief History in Time", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Recoilless_rifle&oldid=995890328, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 12:45. The man-portable, multi-role weapon system allows dismounted soldiers to deal with multiple challenges on the modern battlefield. These weapons remained fairly rare during the war, although the American M20 became increasingly common in 1945. The Soviet Union adopted a series of crew-served smoothbore recoilless guns in the 1950s and 1960s, specifically the 73mm SPG-9, 82mm B-10 and 107mm B-11. Recoilless gun launch systems are often used to provide the initial thrust for man-portable weapons firing rocket-powered projectiles: examples include the RPG-7, Panzerfaust 3 and MATADOR. The recoilless rifle was first seen in a practical example just prior to World War 1 (1914-1918) where it emerged as the Davis Gun of the United States Navy. The last major use was the M50 Ontos, which mounted six M40 rifles on a light (9 ton) tracked chassis. All are found quite commonly around the world in the inventories of former Soviet client states, where they are usually used as anti-tank guns. A recoilless rifle is an artillery piece and fires a shell, not a rocket. Postwar saw a great deal of interest in recoilless systems, as they potentially offered an effective replacement for the obsolete anti-tank rifle in infantry units. This was capable of perforating 40mm of perpendicular armor plate at 100m (a high explosive projectile was also made). This is a list of recoilless rifles (RCLs) intended to catalogue these lightweight infantry support weapons that allow the firing of a heavier projectile than would be practical with a recoiling artillery gun. Modern rifles. 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