Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in … Lund Research Ltd., 2012; Summary: Using it Wisely. University College Writing Centre. No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. You should frame your suggestions by linking the need for further research to the limitations of your study [e.g., in future studies, the survey instrument should include more questions that ask..."] or linking to critical issues revealed from the data that were not considered initially in your research. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! First proposed by author Stephen Toulmin in The Uses of Argument(1958), the Toulmin Method emphasizes building a thorough support structure for each of an argument's key claims. The Toulmin Method is a formula that allows writers to build a sturdy logical foundation for their arguments. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, Azar, Beth. George Mason University; Discussion. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works and references in the past tense. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. The bin serves two valuable purposes: 1) it stores valuable ideas for consideration at an appropriate and convenient time, and 2) it allows discussion to stay focused on the agenda topic. You should make suggestions for further research in the discussion section. Department of Biology. Make Suggestions for Further Research. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. Check out this article to learn a bit more about what a symposium is. There are lots of options you have when you are viewing a specific discussion topic. All the three resources are important to get results. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. For example, if you studied the impact of foreign aid on increasing levels of education among the poor in Bangladesh, it's generally not appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim. I don't want to organize my garage, because I don't want to do any work around the house to begin with. A group that never loses is probably just too naive or nearsighted to understand what's happening. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. As such, you should always approach the selection and interpretation of your findings introspectively and to think critically about the possibility of judgmental biases unintentionally entering into discussions about the significance of your work. This is not necessary. Check the course home … Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results and/or linked to similar studies. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings, It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. By bringing together several speakers, event organisers are able to offer the audience a thought-provoking discussion that analyses a topic from different angles. "The Anatomy of an Article: The Discussion Section: "How Does the Article I Read Today Change What I Will Recommend to my Patients Tomorrow?” The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 74 (June 2013): 1599-1602; Research Limitations & Future Research. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. III. If a study that you cited does not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. Department of English Writing Guide. Some instructors prefer that chairs be in a circle, others in a U-shape, while for small group discussions or debates chairs must be moved and assembled differently. ... discussion discussion section active learning writing collaborative learning motivation conceptual knowledge analysis problem solving reading & composition courses participation group work reading strategies visual learning critical thinking role play and simulation Full tag list. The discussion guide will reflect this in the questions you include. If you are thinking about convening a discussion group, here is a brief outline of the key steps for organizing and facilitating it. If applicable, begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most significant or unanticipated finding first, then systematically review each finding. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand the discussion in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). III. MacCoun, Robert J. Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. No one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. Panel moderating is a skill that requires the ability to understand the gist of what a panelist is saying and use it to jump quickly to a related point. If you feel compelled to speculate, do so in the form of describing possible implications or explaining possible impacts. Panel discussions are an inseparable part of many events. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section. Annual Review of Psychology 49 (February 1998): 259-287. This paragraph should begin with a description of the unexpected finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. Education: Organizing the Learning Process . Department of Biology. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, other questions related to the problem likely remain unanswered. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. "Discussing Your Findings." • Discuss the interpretation of the unexpected results. It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove. Briefly reiterate for your readers the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses. But here comes the challenge. Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Avoid the use of jargon or undefined technical language, Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section [a notable exception is to begin by highlighting an unexpected result or finding in order to grab the reader's attention], Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense, If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand your discussion of the results in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your effort to interpret the data in relation to the research problem. Set a schedule such as checking for new discussion postings only once a day. Organizing is about creating a system that works and training your family to maintain it. This part of the discussion should begin with a description of the unanticipated finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. "Discussing Your Findings." Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper]. If you feel compelled to speculate, be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. If a study that you cited disagrees with your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why the study's findings differ from yours. Use the same terms, academic writing style that was used throughout your research paper 3. In other words, you make your main argument. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. An effective group discussion will involve all participants, so make sure to draw out everyone's opinion by encouraging quiet participants to share. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. Community organizing, method of engaging and empowering people with the purpose of increasing the influence of groups historically underrepresented in policies and decision making that affect their lives.. Community organizing is both a tactic to address specific problems and issues and a longer-term engagement and empowerment strategy. I. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. This is the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and/or fill existing gaps in the field. to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. Moreover, some unanswered questions may have become more focused because of your study. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. This article gives doctoral dissertation students valuable guidance on how to go about writing their Discussion chapter. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: Talk with people like human beings! IV. A good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings, Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. The ultimate comfort, and one that breaks down barriers among people, is that of eating and drinking. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. This section is often considered the most important part of a research paper because it most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based on the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. Azar, Beth. II. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix]. In organizing your discussion, start from the specific to general • Emphasis the new or important findings from your results, then explain the reason behind these findings. If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. University of Toronto; Sauaia, A. et al. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think about the results [“why hadn’t I thought of that?”]. Discussing Your Findings. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. I. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Minimize the number of teams that require a person's participation. The Writing Center. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. American Psychological Association, Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Department of English Writing Guide. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. Channels within a team should be thought of as topics or workstreams to aid the team in organizing their work to deliver on their joint objectives. “Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (January 2006): 4-18; Kretchmer, Paul. Discussion Chapter: Main Goals and Writing Approaches You should always keep in […] No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings. Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and, to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation'. You may have to lead a discussion as part of a school assignment or you may be responsible for leading a discussion in a work setting. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. This part of the paper is not strictly governed by objective reporting of information but, rather, it is where you can engage in creative thinking about issues through evidence-based interpretation of findings. Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. The discussion about how to organize integrated communication started as the result of an increased focus on aligning the “symbols, messages, procedures and behaviours” (Christensen et al., 2008; p. 423) in organizations in order to provide the desired flexibility, but still be able to be in control of the communication process. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. The discussion assignment provides a forum for debating topics that may not have one clear answer. With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. Systematically explain the meaning of the findings and why you believe they are important. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to discover and not to prove. [By the way, another similarity between organizing my garage and organizing writing is the need for some motivation. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. Follow this step-by-step guide. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. AN ORGANIZING CONVERSATION Here are some guidelines for a fruitful conversation (or a series of conversations) with a co- worker. The Organization. Using the bin is an effective way to keep discussion focused and it helps people hold onto their thoughts and ideas without being disruptive to the meeting. Organize the discussion forums. Invite the right people. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Before a plan can be implemented, managers mus… Organising a conference is a marathon, not a sprint.So, before we jump into the nitty-gritty of how to organise a conference, pour yourself a cup of tea. Combine standard flatware trays and bigger sizes for cooking tools to create a perfect fit. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. George Mason University; One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Importance of Organizing Function Specialization - Organizational structure is a network of relationships in which the work is divided into units and departments. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources in your research paper are usually found in the discussion section. The sound of water from the mill stream rushing by put everyone at ease, and encouraged creative thought. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. Then the article explains 12 specific steps to take to write an effective Discussion chapter. This division of work is helping in bringing specialization in various activities of concern. 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