campestris (black rot), Xanthomonas campestris pv. rapa). [27], Cabbage was probably domesticated later in history than Near Eastern crops such as lentils and summer wheat. Red, pink or white are the usual shades, with green or steely blue hints at the edges of some leaves. Brassica oleracea var. marginalis (lettuce marginal leaf blight), Pseudomonas syringae pv. Cabbage grown as field crop.|Mature Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.) [13], The inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm (20–40 in) tall,[13] with flowers that are yellow or white. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae) thrive in the higher summer temperatures of continental Europe, where they cause considerable damage to cabbage crops. The disorder is regarded as a localized calcium deficiency. winter. For other uses, see, Leafy vegetable in the flowering plant family Brassicaceae, A whole white cabbage and a cross section. Recent estimates indicate Africa has 1 00,000 includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, ha planted with head cabbage [9]. The fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape. [5] Cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the First Fleet, and were planted the same year on Norfolk Island. [53] Excessive water and excessive heat can also cause cultivation problems. Other medicinal uses recorded in European folk medicine include treatments for rheumatism, sore throat, hoarseness, colic, and melancholy. Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color spectrum includes white and a range of greens and purples. botrytis); Brussels sprouts (var. Cabbage was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD. These are high quality heads because of their short core, density and tender texture. They are harvested by cutting the stalk just below the bottom leaves with a blade. Cabbage can be stored the longest at −1 to 2 °C (30 to 36 °F) with a humidity of 90–100 percent; these conditions will result in up to six months of longevity. The genetic diversity of 20 cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. This family decades. Full Sun. Ab aliis fermentantur; ab alteris decoquuntur; sed a quasi omnibus manducantur. [9] About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm (8–12 in) of soil; some lateral roots can penetrate up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep. ), Xanthomonas campestris pv. Necrotic spot is where there are oval sunken spots a few millimeters across that are often grouped around the midrib. Vernalization allows the plant to grow to an adequate size before flowering. Americans consume 3.9 kg (8.6 lb) annually per capita. Basic research on cabbage phytochemicals is ongoing to discern if certain cabbage compounds may affect health or have potential for anti-disease effects, such as sulforaphane and other glucosinolates. [14] Early varieties of cabbage take about 70 days from planting to reach maturity, while late varieties take about 120 days. [68] Destructive soil insects include the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and the cabbage maggot (Hylemya brassicae), whose larvae can burrow into the part of plant consumed by humans. These include the heaviest cabbage, at 57.61 kilograms (127.0 lb),[19] heaviest red cabbage, at 19.05 kilograms (42.0 lb),[20] longest cabbage roll, at 15.37 m (50 ft 5 in),[21] and the largest cabbage dish, at 925.4 kilograms (2,040 lb). Brassica oleracea L. var. 2014 Jan;14(11):6657-62. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.11.6657. capitata F. rubra) has not yet been characterized at the molecular level. Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops[2]) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli. Other Brassica species, such as B. rapa, B. juncea, B. nigra, B. napus and Raphanus sativus, do not readily cross-pollinate.[61]. Charles Parrain, "The evolution of agricultural technique" in M. M. Postan, ed. However, genetic analysis is consistent with feral origin of this population, deriving from plants escaped from field and gardens. This in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., Sp. [15] Bean curd and cabbage is a staple of Chinese cooking,[73] while the British dish bubble and squeak is made primarily with leftover potato and boiled cabbage and eaten with cold meat. ), Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode), Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (cabbage seed pod weevil), Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth), Dickeya chrysanthemi (bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum and other ornamentals), Erysiphe cruciferarum (powdery mildew of crucifers), Gryllotalpa africana (african mole cricket), Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode), Helicoverpa zea (American cotton bollworm), Melanoplus bivittatus (twostriped grasshopper), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (potato blackleg disease), Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. pekinensis) were used as outliers in the study. [71], Cabbage consumption varies widely around the world: Russia has the highest annual per capita consumption at 20 kg (44 lb), followed by Belgium at 4.7 kg (10 lb 6 oz) and the Netherlands at 4.0 kg (8 lb 13 oz). Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops ) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli. [57] Some varieties of cabbage have been developed for ornamental use; these are generally called "flowering cabbage". capitata L. or Brassica oleracea Red Cabbage and White/Green Cabbage Groups. Accessed: 2019 May. [62], Due to its high level of nutrient requirements, cabbage is prone to nutrient deficiencies, including boron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Reviews ; Growing Tips; Early Spring sowing variety; few outer leaves with good size hearts and a broad base, suitable for plant sales. carotovorum (bacterial root rot of sweet potato), Phyllotreta albionica (cabbage flea beetle), Phyllotreta chotanica (striped flea beetle), Phyllotreta cruciferae (crucifer flea beetle), Phyllotreta striolata (cabbage flea beetle), Pieris napi (green-veined white butterfly), Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion), Pratylenchus vulnus (walnut root lesion nematode), Pseudomonas marginalis pv. The wide adaptability and easy-to-grow character of cabbage are no doubt responsible for the worldwide popularity of cabbage cultivation. A cabbage plant is a large bud that forms into a head consisting of overlapping leaves surrounded by a rosette of outer leaves positioned closer to the ground. White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 10:48. J. Agri. Other major producers were India, South Korea, and Russia. alba) in wooden crates harvested on field - DPTEA5 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Kohlrabi, Brassica oleracea var. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8 and is not frost tender. capitata L. Brassica oleracea subsp. Raw cabbage is 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). Plants have root systems that are fibrous and shallow. [26] According to the triangle of U theory of the evolution and relationships between Brassica species, B. oleracea and other closely related kale vegetables (cabbages, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower) represent one of three ancestral lines from which all other brassicas originated. Has medium sized heads that quickly form the distinctive January King purple colour as the crop matures. This plant has a mild fragrance. oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. Your Brassica Oleracea Var Capitata stock images are ready. [5] During the 16th century, German gardeners developed the savoy cabbage. [86] This traditional usage persisted in European literature until the mid-20th century.[87]. [66], Planting near other members of the cabbage family, or where these plants have been placed in previous years, can prompt the spread of pests and disease. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Res. Pl. [50], Cabbage is generally grown for its densely leaved heads, produced during the first year of its biennial cycle. [64] The fungi Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola cause dark leaf spots in affected plants. [9] The initial leaves form a rosette shape comprising 7 to 15 leaves, each measuring 25–35 cm (10–14 in) by 20–30 cm (8–12 in);[13] after this, leaves with shorter petioles develop and heads form through the leaves cupping inward. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cabbage were also recently been reported. Half-hardy. No need to register, buy now! An early January King type that matures from October to February. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. [38] The more traditionalist Cato the Elder, espousing a simple Republican life, ate his cabbage cooked or raw and dressed with vinegar; he said it surpassed all other vegetables, and approvingly distinguished three varieties; he also gave directions for its medicinal use, which extended to the cabbage-eater's urine, in which infants might be rinsed. [32] The ancient Greeks had some varieties of cabbage, as mentioned by Theophrastus, although whether they were more closely related to today's cabbage or to one of the other Brassica crops is unknown. The discolouring and desiccation of inner head leaves may render whole yields useless. Plants are 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, and 1.5–2.0 m (4 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) tall when flowering in the second year. General information about Brassica oleracea var. The cooling properties of the leaves were used in Britain as a treatment for trench foot in World War I, and as compresses for ulcers and breast abscesses. [5] Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head". [31] According to Pliny, the Pompeii cabbage, which could not stand cold, is "taller, and has a thick stock near the root, but grows thicker between the leaves, these being scantier and narrower, but their tenderness is a valuable quality". phytochemical s creening was ca rried on the leaves extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. [64] The caterpillar stage of the "small cabbage white butterfly" (Pieris rapae), commonly known in the United States as the "imported cabbage worm", is a major cabbage pest in most countries. They are both seedborne and airborne, and typically propagate from spores in infected plant debris left on the soil surface for up to twelve weeks after harvest. Brassica oleracea capitata is a BIENNIAL growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in) at a medium rate. [10], Many cabbage varieties—including some still commonly grown—were introduced in Germany, France, and the Low Countries. Find help & information on Brassica oleracea var. Self-pollination is impossible, and plants are cross-pollinated by insects. Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce", "Cabbage Risk Assessment Introduction and Summary", "Nutritional epidemiology and thyroid hormone metabolism", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cabbage&oldid=996239071, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [24] Savoy cabbages are usually used in salads, while smooth-leaf types are utilized for both market sales and processing. [64], Pests include root-knot nematodes and cabbage maggots, which produce stunted and wilted plants with yellow leaves; aphids, which induce stunted plants with curled and yellow leaves; harlequin cabbage bugs, which cause white and yellow leaves; thrips, which lead to leaves with white-bronze spots; striped flea beetles, which riddle leaves with small holes; and caterpillars, which leave behind large, ragged holes in leaves. [49] Carl Peter Thunberg reported that cabbage was not yet known in Japan in 1775. Cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Turini TA, Daugovish O, Koike ST, Natwick ET, Ploeg A, Dara SK, Fennimore SA, Joseph S, LeStrange M, Smith R, Subbarao KV, Westerdahl BB. It is descended from the wild cabbage (B. oleracea var. [15], Cabbage has been selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness, fast growth and storage ability. capitata. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree (a member of the genus Andira) and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, Acrocomia and Euterpe oenocarpus. Description; Technical Info; Shipping! [67] In India, the diamondback moth has caused losses up to 90 percent in crops that were not treated with insecticide. In commercial-scale operations, hand-harvested cabbages are trimmed, sorted, and packed directly in the field to increase efficiency. Chilling and clubroot disease cause severe losses of yields and quality in this species, as well as in other Brassicaceae crops. Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest, but is digested by bacteria in the large intestine. 32 Acad. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant. gemmifera); and Savoy cabbage (var. This cabbage field was established by transplanting on raised beds and furrow irrigated. This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli. Different varieties prefer different soil types, ranging from lighter sand to heavier clay, but all prefer fertile ground with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. [88], Cabbage has been linked to outbreaks of some food-borne illnesses, including Listeria monocytogenes[89] and Clostridium botulinum. 30cm. [14] Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases. [85] Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine. [84] The ancient Roman, Pliny the Elder, described both culinary and medicinal properties of the vegetable. Sci. capitata Gloria F1 - 1.jpg 1,200 × 1,600; 439 KB Brassica oleracea var. The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative,[47] and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning,[83] for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises. [91], Cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables contain small amounts of thiocyanate, a compound associated with goiter formation when iodine intake is deficient. [37] The Pompeii cabbage was also mentioned by Columella in De Re Rustica. odoriferum, Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive), Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato), Pythium myriotylum (brown rot of groundnut), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato), Bacillus polymyxa (bacterial: tomato seedling blight), Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode), Mycosphaerella tassiana (antagonist of Botrytis cinerea), Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato), Serratia liquefaciens (insect pathogen (mainly orthopterans)), Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant), Trichoderma harzianum (hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia solani), Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot), Barypeithes pellucidus (juniper root weevil), Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly), Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (cabbage stem weevil), Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma (turnip gall weevil), Chrysodeixis agnata (three-spotted plusia), Evergestis forficalis (crucifer, caterpillar), Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower), Lacanobia oleracea (bright-line brown-eye moth), Pemphigus populitransversus (poplar petiolegall aphid), Phlogophora meticulosa (angle shades moth), Phyllotreta nemorum (striped flea beetle), Phytophthora drechsleri (watermelon fruit rot), Pratylenchus neglectus (nematode, California meadow), Spilarctia obliqua (common hairy caterpillar). 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